A migratory endoparasitic nematode. Found associated with most crops but is usually an indication of high organic matter. Is problematic in bananas.

Spiral nematode

Xiphinema is a very large ectoparasitic nematode with a wide host range. It is characterised by its very large odontostylet and flanges. The stylet does not have knobs like most plant parasitic nematodes.

Dagger Nematode

A significant pest worldwide, of stone fruit and nut trees as well as vineyards. Ring nematode populations can exceed 2 000 individuals per 50cc of soil. Although no damage estimate is available yet for SA, Pinkerton et al. (2005) showed that populations greater than 125 ring nematodes per 250cc soil can result in 10-25% yield loss.

Ring nematode

Unlike root knot nematodes, root lesion nematode isn't as easily distinguished in the field as they do not form "galls". Feeding by these nematodes cause necrotic lesions on root tissue and they are often associated with soil borne diseases. Presence of this nematode must be confirmed with a soil and root sample.

Root lesion nematode

Root knot nematode has an incredibly wide host range including most weeds and even some cover crops. If present in the field, pay attention to the crops that you choose in your rotation to ensure that host crops are avoided. Remember to sample your soil and roots to find out what nematode genera are present in your soil.

Root knot nematodes